He is best known for 14 operatic collaborations with the dramatist W. Gilbert , including H. His works include 24 operas, 11 major orchestral works, ten choral works and oratorios , two ballets, incidental music to several plays, and numerous church pieces, songs, and piano and chamber pieces. The son of a military bandmaster, Sullivan composed his first anthem at the age of eight and was later a soloist in the boys' choir of the Chapel Royal. In , at 14, he was awarded the first Mendelssohn Scholarship by the Royal Academy of Music , which allowed him to study at the academy and then at the Leipzig Conservatoire in Germany. His graduation piece, incidental music to Shakespeare 's The Tempest , was received with acclaim on its first performance in London.
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His works are seen as developing the scientific method and remained influential through the scientific revolution. Bacon has been called the father of empiricism. Most importantly, he argued science could be achieved by use of a sceptical and methodical approach whereby scientists aim to avoid misleading themselves. Although his most specific proposals about such a method, the Baconian method , did not have long-lasting influence, the general idea of the importance and possibility of a sceptical methodology makes Bacon the father of the scientific method. This method was a new rhetorical and theoretical framework for science, whose practical details are still central to debates on science and methodology. Francis Bacon was a patron of libraries and developed a system for cataloguing books under three categories — history , poetry , and philosophy —which could further be divided into specific subjects and subheadings.
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Hume argued against the existence of innate ideas , positing that all human knowledge derives solely from experience. Hume argued that inductive reasoning and belief in causality cannot be justified rationally; instead, they result from custom and mental habit. We never actually perceive that one event causes another but only experience the " constant conjunction " of events. This problem of induction means that to draw any causal inferences from past experience, it is necessary to presuppose that the future will resemble the past, a presupposition which cannot itself be grounded in prior experience. An opponent of philosophical rationalists , Hume held that passions rather than reason govern human behaviour, famously proclaiming that " Reason is, and ought only to be the slave of the passions.